#ENVS2004 The issue of Dirty Water in India (5)

Water Management in India

                                                                                                                                                Enhanced management practices can reduce the problem of water scarcity in India. This region has experienced inadequate water due to absence of water legislation and conservation (World Bank Report, 2005). Water has been perceived as a natural resource, which should not be managed. With decentralization, water can be controlled by ensuring that all regions are adequately supplied. Despite economic developments and food security, inadequate water greatly affects these plans. Indian law needs to exercise legislation on ground water to control industries, farmers and homeowners. This legislation will also ensure that available electricity and pumps do not trigger depletion of aquifers (Cambridge University Press, 2007). The law will also control the present 20 million wells and manage the issue of more drilling of boreholes and wells. This legislation will ensure landowners pay some amount for recycling and water conservation. This law will additionally ensure that the more water is supplied, the more it can be generated.


(Often Parched, India Struggles to Tap the Monsoon: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/01/world/asia/01india.html?sq=&_r=0)

Water can also be stored and delivered to the citizens as supply shrinks (Somini, 2006). Temple tanks and steep wells can be used for storage. This application has enabled China to store five times as much water for an individual. The Indian government asserts that only one in every ten citizens may lack water. The government however fails to note that the distributed water is usually polluted by the time it is available to the consumers.

Due to infrastructure challenges, the distributed water in major towns like New Delhi cannot reach the consumers. Out of 30 million cubic meters of water supplied daily, only 17 million cubic meters reach urban consumers in this region (Somini, 2006). The government needs to maintain canals and pipes to reduce at least 40% of the leakages. Tankers can only be employed in case of emergencies as they offer questionable quality and at high costs.


Water is one of the major natural resource whose absence greatly affects the well-being of the Indians (Global Envision, 2007). Water scarcity has resulted to major disease outbreaks like cholera and diarrhea. India as one of nations with high population has been experiencing clean water challenges in the previous past. In as much as India is a developing nation, water as a natural resource can be managed and used to produce more water. This can be through government legislation and management of the resource. It is necessary for the locals to change their attitudes towards water management and conservation for proper management of the resource.


References List:

World Bank Report, 2005. India’s Water Economy: Bracing for a Turbulent Future. Available at:  India’s Water Economy: Bracing for a Turbulent Future  (Accessed: 8 January 2016).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Cambridge University Press, 2007.The Physical Science Basis. Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth (Accessed: 8 January 2016).

Somini Sengupta, 2006. Often Parched, India Struggles to Tap the Monsoon. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/01/world/asia/01india.html?sq=&_r=0 (Accessed: 8 January 2016).

Global Envision, 2007.Running on Empty. Available at: http://www.globalenvision.org/library/1/1685 (Accessed: 8 January 2016).


#ENVS2004 The Issue Of Dirty Water In India (4)

Water Supply in India

The major sources of water in this region are surface and underground water. Other sources included desalinization but it was found to be ineffective due to high management cost.


(Ground and Surface Water over a period http://www.arlingtoninstitute.org/wbp/global-water-crisis/606)

Surface water consists of main rivers like the Ganges, Mahanadi, Godavari, Indus and Krishna. These rivers are classified into the coastal, Himalayan, Inland drainage and the peninsular. The Himalayan is formed through melting of the snow and is thus continuous throughout. These rivers form the largest fresh water and flow into the major Asian rivers. Heavy rainfall is experienced in the monsoon period around the Himalayan, results to overflowing of the rivers. Coastal rivers are short and cover small catchment. Krishna is an example of these rivers as it flows to the west. Peninsular rivers flow inland and increase the river volume during the monsoon. Inland rivers on the other hand dry out as they feed silt lakes or become lost in sand. More than 4,000 billion cubic meters of rain is experienced in India annually, as 48% of this quantity feed the rivers ,(World Bank Report, 2005); (Khurana, 2012). In the absence of adequate storage facilities, only 18% of this amount of water is efficiently utilized. During the monsoon, the region expects more than three quarters its annual precipitation.

The major source of drinking water in the region is ground water (Sakthivadivel, 2007). Ground water serves agricultural and industrial purposes. More than 430 billion cubic meters (bcm) of this water is usually replenished by the river and rain drainage although only about 390 bcm is adequately utilized. Increased pumping is much more than the amount of rainfall filing in the water levels, thus ground water levels has been drastically decreasing at an estimated 0.4 meters annually. Human, industrial and agricultural wastes have been seeping into the ground polluting this water. Therefore underground water crisis is an effect of human activities (Hudda).


Reference List:

World Bank Report, 2005. India’s Water Economy: Bracing for a Turbulent Future. Available at: India’s Water Economy: Bracing for a Turbulent Future  (Accessed: 28 December 2015).

Khurana, Indira, and Sen, Romit. Drinking Water quality in rural India: issues and approaches. Available at: http://www.wateraid.org/~/media/Publications/drinking-water-quality-rural-india.pdf (Accessed: 28 December 2015).

Sakthivadivel, S., 2007. The Groundwater Recharge Movement in India.” The Agricultural Groundwater Revolution: Opportunities and Threats. (3nd edition). CABI, Colombo.

Hudda, Sonakshi. River Pollution: causes, actions, and revival. Print. Available at: http://www.janhitfoundation.in/pdf/booklet/river_pollution_causes_action_and_revival.pdf (Accessed: 28 December 2015).


#ENVS2004 The issue of Dirty Water in India (3)

Demand of water in India

As one of the countries with high population, demand of water in this region is quite soaring. More than 800 (bcm) of water has been used for domestic, agricultural and industrial in India annually. This demand is increase to above 1.4 trillion cubic meters by 2050 (Somini, 2006).


(Water demand by sector: http://www.arlingtoninstitute.org/wbp/global-water-crisis/606)

The high population in India requires huge quantities of drinking water, between the urban and the rural populations, which is approximately 6% of the intact demand. Urbanites have a higher demand than the rural residents owing to facilities like washing machines. This category represents above 30% of the total population, whose demand is expected to replicate in the next 30 years. Population growth is approximated to increase the demand for water mainly because majority of the people are expected to move to the city and increase the social class.

As the government is failing to treat polluted rivers, most of the urbanites are resorting to drill underground water, which is also a major cause of depletion of underground waters (Sakthivadivel, 2007). This problem is to affect rural dwellers as 30% of the population in 35 states is lacking safe drinking water. The major need for water for rural residents is for agriculture as the domestic demand is minimal. Agriculture remains to be the major economic sustenance in India despite industrial growth. After 1967, most of the Indians resorted to double cropping with application of improved seeds. Farmers have highly profited but the demand for water has intensified as agricultural production has likewise led to water shortage in the rural region. Water is besides an important element in the manufacturing and textile machines. Their demands have been met by the sourcing of underground water. After meeting their demands, the same water is used to pollute available water in the rivers through disposal.


References List:

Somini Sengupta, 2006. In Teeming India, Water Crisis Means Dry Pipes and Foul Sludge. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/29/world/asia/29water.html?ref=bottledwater (Accessed: 21 December 2015).

Sakthivadivel, S., 2007. The Groundwater Recharge Movement in India.” The Agricultural Groundwater Revolution: Opportunities and Threats. (3nd edition). CABI, Colombo.

#ENVS2004 The issue of Dirty Water in India (2)

Major water Crisis in India

Worldwide, water shortages are daily experienced by at least two billion people. India having a larger population worldwide has a high water demand, which keep increasing at an alarming rate even as the water supply keeps reducing due to mismanagement of the water resources (Sylvester, 1991). Additional contributors to the problem include toxic wastes and over-pumping.


(Sewage pipes directly releasing the waste into a water body in India


Climate variation has further resulted to unpredictable and erratic weather. This is to further affect the amount of rainwater from rainfall and glaciers. The result of reduced water will affect the availability of food, international conflict and intrastate.

Water problem is a human source as India neither has a dry region nor rivers and groundwater resources (Jeyaratnam, 1985). The major contributions to this problem are corruption within the government, human and industrial waste disposal in the water, poor water management, and unclear laws regarding water. These factors have resulted to the available water becoming polluted and balancing between the affluent and the poor, the urban and the rural becoming a great challenge. This water problem in India can be overcome by changing the actions and attitudes of the residents. Instead of relying on municipal water, residents can initiate conservation methods of water during the rainy seasons. Legislators ought to clarify laws concerning water management (World Bank Report, 2005). The government through the management authorities ought to device water recycling and efficiency methods and modify individual’s attitude. Rather than perceiving water as unlimited, management needs to be exercised on water as a scarce product and a right. Decentralization of the sector ought to be developed for the local municipal council to assume control of water in their region.


References List:

Igbedioh Sylvester, 1991.“Effects of Agricultural Pesticides on Humans, Animals and Higher Plants in Developing Countries.” Archives of Environmental Health.

World Bank Report, 2005. India’s Water Economy: Bracing for a Turbulent Future. Available at: India’s Water Economy: Bracing for a Turbulent Future (Accessed: (6 December 2015).

Jeyaratnam, 1985.Health Problems of Pesticide Usage in the Third World. Available at: http://oem.bmj.com/cgi/reprintframed/42/8/505 (6 December 2015).

#ENVS2004 The Issue Of Dirty Water In India

Water is the major component of the living things in the world. (Hatnagar, 1999) observes that scarcity of water has resulted to major disease outbreaks such as cholera and diarrhea. India as a nation with high population experiences clean water challenges. This study focuses on the challenge of dirty water in India. Dangerous bacteria contaminate more than half of the rural area water where 70% of the population resides The Globalist, 2014). This has resulted to more than 600,000 lose of children lives annually.

The cost of dirty water in India

Most of the available water is unsafe for drinking directly from the tap (Bradlow, 1958). This is because the circulated water has been polluted by human waste. Pouring of human wastes from the sewage pipes has polluted the major river, Ganges (Morrison, 2012).


(Water pumping station and a sewage outlet within the Ganges River http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2012/01/05/india-the-cost-of-bad-water/)

Individuals have to ensure that they treat the available water as it is usually contaminated. Despite this, residents have assumed this role for their own safety. Circulated dirty water has been attributed as the major cause of premature deaths among children. Cheap ways of treating water at home have been through boiling and filtration. Effects of assuming government’s role is experienced in the number of lost working hours and academic hours and the cost of individual treatment of water. Much is lost when the residents have to take time out of school and official duties to seek for proper medication due to sicknesses (Davis et al., 1995). The cost of accessing and treating water falls on the individuals as a forced consumption. This cost can be directed to sectors like education and health. The cost of individual management of water surpasses the cost the government could have incurred in treating water before delivering it to households. This government cost is far much cheaper than the cost residents have to use in seeking for healthcare in the management of waterborne diseases (Subramanian, 2001).

Numerous approaches are available in treating water for drinking. Among them is the household filtration by Tata Swach (Itteko, 1999). This process incorporates the cheap carbon derived out of burnt rice husks and silver nano-particles. The process is confirmed to destroy fatal microbes like rotavirus and E coli (Gupta et al., 2008) No need to use running water and electricity in this process as the filter bulb stops the flow of water immediately carbon is exhausted. This process is quite affordable as it costs at most $20 whereas the filter replacements go for at around $7. Through this process, more lives of the children can be saved and thus the high death rate of half a million children dying annually will be managed. More companies have adopted this process due to its cost-savings qualities.

Reference List:

Saiyed, Hatnagar, 1999-2003. Impact of Pesticide Use in India Electronic Journals: Asia Pacific Newsletter. Available at: http://www.ttl.fi/Internet/ Eng-lish/Infotion/Electronic+journals/Asian Pacific+News- let-ter/1999-03/05.html (Accessed: 6 December 2015).

The Globalist, 2014. India’s Water Crisis. Available at: http://www.theglobalist.com/just-facts-indias-water-crisis/ (Accessed: 6 December 2015).

Khurana, Indira, and Sen, Romit. Drinking Water quality in rural India: issues and approaches. Available at: http://www.wateraid.org/~/media/Publications/drinking-water-quality-rural-india.pdf (Accessed: 28 December 2015).

Morrison Dan, 2012. India: The cost of bad water.” National Geographic. Available at: http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2012/01/05/india-the-cost-of-bad-water/ (Accessed: 6 December 2015).

Davis, G. Lin,  Sepkovic R. Tiwari. 1995. Effects of Pesticides on the Ratio of 16 Al-pha/2-Hydroxyestrone: A Biologic Marker of Breast Cancer Risk. Environmental Health Perspectives.

Madhavan, Subramanian, 2001. Fluoride concentration in river waters in South Asia. Available at: http://www.academia.edu/6435293/Fluoride_concentration_in_river_waters_of_south_Asia (Accessed: 6 December 2015).

Silva, I. 1999. Status of water quality in Sri Lanka. In: Recent trends in Environmental Biogeochemistry. University of Hamnburg, Germany.

Gupta, Rai and Pandey Sharma, 2008. Analysis of some Heavy Metals in Riverine Water, Sedimentsand Fish from River Ganges at Allahabad. Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10661-008-05474 (Accessed: 6 December 2015).