Water Supply in India
The major sources of water in this region are surface and underground water. Other sources included desalinization but it was found to be ineffective due to high management cost.
(Ground and Surface Water over a period http://www.arlingtoninstitute.org/wbp/global-water-crisis/606)
Surface water consists of main rivers like the Ganges, Mahanadi, Godavari, Indus and Krishna. These rivers are classified into the coastal, Himalayan, Inland drainage and the peninsular. The Himalayan is formed through melting of the snow and is thus continuous throughout. These rivers form the largest fresh water and flow into the major Asian rivers. Heavy rainfall is experienced in the monsoon period around the Himalayan, results to overflowing of the rivers. Coastal rivers are short and cover small catchment. Krishna is an example of these rivers as it flows to the west. Peninsular rivers flow inland and increase the river volume during the monsoon. Inland rivers on the other hand dry out as they feed silt lakes or become lost in sand. More than 4,000 billion cubic meters of rain is experienced in India annually, as 48% of this quantity feed the rivers ,(World Bank Report, 2005); (Khurana, 2012). In the absence of adequate storage facilities, only 18% of this amount of water is efficiently utilized. During the monsoon, the region expects more than three quarters its annual precipitation.
The major source of drinking water in the region is ground water (Sakthivadivel, 2007). Ground water serves agricultural and industrial purposes. More than 430 billion cubic meters (bcm) of this water is usually replenished by the river and rain drainage although only about 390 bcm is adequately utilized. Increased pumping is much more than the amount of rainfall filing in the water levels, thus ground water levels has been drastically decreasing at an estimated 0.4 meters annually. Human, industrial and agricultural wastes have been seeping into the ground polluting this water. Therefore underground water crisis is an effect of human activities (Hudda).
World Bank Report, 2005. India’s Water Economy: Bracing for a Turbulent Future. Available at: India’s Water Economy: Bracing for a Turbulent Future (Accessed: 28 December 2015).
Khurana, Indira, and Sen, Romit. Drinking Water quality in rural India: issues and approaches. Available at: http://www.wateraid.org/~/media/Publications/drinking-water-quality-rural-india.pdf (Accessed: 28 December 2015).
Sakthivadivel, S., 2007. The Groundwater Recharge Movement in India.” The Agricultural Groundwater Revolution: Opportunities and Threats. (3nd edition). CABI, Colombo.
Hudda, Sonakshi. River Pollution: causes, actions, and revival. Print. Available at: http://www.janhitfoundation.in/pdf/booklet/river_pollution_causes_action_and_revival.pdf (Accessed: 28 December 2015).